Renault, un élément clé dans l’histoire de France et dans l’industrie automobile


L’histoire de Renault, est profondément ancrée dans l’histoire de France. Il s’agit actuellement du deuxième constructeur automobile français et il est connu dans le monde entier.

Né d’un créateur autodidacte :

La première voiture Renault a vu le jour en 1898 lorsque Louis Renault a construit sa première automobile, la « type A », à Boulogne-Billancourt. Ce jeune constructeur n’a pourtant pas suivi un parcours particulier pour en arriver là, il était autodidacte. L’année d’après, l’entreprise Renault Frères a vu le jour et a pu conquérir le marché automobile avant même la première guerre mondiale. En effet, les exploits sportifs des modèles créés ont été des atouts de séduction majeurs. Lorsque la guerre a éclaté, l’usine de Renault a été mobilisée, dans le but de fabriquer des munitions, mais aussi du char léger FT qui a joué un grand rôle aux avancées alliées, avant l’armistice.

Une marque connue partout dans le monde :

Lorsque la France a été envahie par les occupants, les usines Renault ont été réquisitionnées par ces derniers. Louis Renault a été arrêté pour collaboration, en 1944, et meurt en prison peu de temps après. Lorsque la guerre fut finie, le gouvernement nationalise l’entreprise sous le nom de « Régie nationale des usines Renault ». Sa première fonction était de construire des voitures d’entrée de gamme, qui sont principalement, la 4CV, en 1946 et la Dauphine. Cette dernière marque un tournant important dans la motorisation de la France d’après-guerre. À partir de-là, la firme n’a jamais cessé de se développer et s’est implantée dans plusieurs villes de France comme Flins, Cléon, Sandouville dans l’axe Paris Le Havre, mais aussi Le Mans et Douai. Son expansion continue même à l’étranger : Espagne, Amérique du Sud, Turquie, Maroc et Algérie. Sa première usine chinoise doit être inaugurée cette année à Wuhan. Seul le marché nord-américain lui résiste et la marque peine également à percer le marché des véhicules haut de gamme.

Une marque parmi les plus grandes :

Entre 1990 et 1996, l’État se désengage petit à petit de Renault et la firme a pris le statut de société anonyme. C’est à cette époque qu’elle a racheté la marque roumaine, Dacia, qui devient vite une filiale renommée dans le low-cost. En 1999, Renault s’allie avec le groupe japonais Nissan, avec lequel elle forme le quatrième groupe automobile mondial en termes de volume. Grâce à cette alliance, Renault compte rejoindre le « top 3 » des groupes automobiles mondiaux les plus puissants, sachant qu’en 2014, la firme a vendu 2,71 millions d’unités, engendrant un chiffre d’affaires de 41 milliards d’euros et dégageant un bénéfice net de 1,89 milliard. Ainsi, il suit de près PSA Peugeot Citroën, qui a écoulé 2,9 millions de véhicules la même année, pour un chiffre d’affaires de 53,6 milliards.

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