La voiture écologique de demain serait-elle un modèle à hydrogène ?

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La Toyota Mirai vient tout juste de faire une entrée très remarquée sur le marché européen. Il s’agit du premier modèle à PAC àhydrogène conçu par le groupe,déjà considéré par le président de Toyota France comme le véhicule écologique idéal.Sa commercialisation en France est prévue pour 2017.

« Du point de vue écologie, cette voiture n’émet aucun CO2 et ne rejette que de l’eau », a confirmé Pascal Ruch lors de sa conférence donnée au cours de la présentation des nouveaux modèles conçus par la marque à Strasbourg. Lorsque l’hydrogène contenu dans chacune de ses deux réservoirs entre en contact avec l’oxygène, du courant électrique est produit, ce qui permet d’alimenter le moteur.

« Les points forts »

« Bénéficiant d’une conduite agréable, la Toyota Mirai affiche une autonomie de 500 kilomètres, avec des batteries qui se rechargent en trois minutes à peine. Etant donné que nous fabriquons des petites séries depuis l’année dernière, nous savons ce que nous faisons. Nous sommes certains que ce modèle a encore de beaux jours devant lui », affirme Pascal Ruch. Selon lui, Toyota a toujours eu pour objectif de se tourner vers la mobilité durable : « L’avenir appartient au modèle hybride. Cette technologie utilisée aujourd’hui le sera encore durant les dix prochaines années. Toutefois, il existe d’autres technologies qui présentent beaucoup d’avantages, telles que la voiture à pile à combustion à hydrogène. »

Le véhicule à hydrogène représente donc la solution miracle. Néanmoins, certaines associationsqui participent à la préservation de l’environnement restent quelque peu sceptiques quant à cette technologie. Selon Stephen Kerckhove, délégué général de l’association« Agir pour l’Environnement », les questions restent les mêmes que pour les véhicules électriques. Si la production de l’hydrogène nécessite l’utilisation du nucléaire ou du charbon, le problème concernant la pollution subsiste.

Energies renouvelables, il faut optimiser le rendement

Selon Stephen Kerckhove, le secret du succès se trouve dans l’équilibre énergétique. Il faudra par exemple utiliser le creux de consommation d’éolienne afin d’assurer l’alimentation des voitures.

Si ce dernier reconnaît les qualités indiscutables des voitures à hydrogène, Rodolphe Gie affirme que les émissions de la production sont de nos jours dédiées à l’usage de la voiture. Ainsi, cette personnalité influente qui dirige le programme Energie et Propulsion au Pôle Véhicule du futur de Strasbourgfait savoir sa position par rapport à l’utilisation des énergies renouvelables pour produire l’hydrogène en vue de respecter totalement l’environnement. Il voit dans cette solution la technologie de demain, qui ne sera sans doute pas la seule, mais qui complètera l’électrification des voitures.

Réduire le coût de moitié

A Pascal Ruch d’admettre que : « Nous nous retrouvons face à deux enjeux majeurs : la réduction du coût de ces véhicules à hydrogène, qui se monte à 60.000 € l’unité actuellement, et la mise en place des stations de recharge. En nous concentrant sur la réduction du coût des composants techniques et électriques, il est possible de faire tomber le coût deproduction à 30.000 € d’ici quelques années. En 2050, Toyota ne devrait donc plus produire de voiture thermique. »

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